London Kills

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Captions to the figures [link] Liste des illustrations Table 1. Direct radiocarbon ages and stable isotopes for the Oase, Muierii and Cioclovina human remains.

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For detailed chemistry, see Trinkaus et al. Human stable isotope values for Late Pleistocene European humans [link] Fig. Human stable isotopes black circles from the Peştera cu Oase O1Peştera Muierii M1, M2 and Peştera Cioclovina C1plotted against carnivores gray diamonds and herbivores gray triangles from the first two sites [link] Texte intégral 1.

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Valorile δ13C sunt similare cu cele ale populaţiilor din Pleistocenul superior, în vreme ce valorile δ15N indică o dietă perponderent carnivoră. Aportul de carne în cazurile studiate este printre cele mai ridicate din Paleoliticul superior mijlociu, şi în acelaşi timp mult mai dating site spy decât al neandertalilor din Paleoliticul mijlociu şi de la începutul Paleoliticului superior vechi.

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Aceste date arată că primii oamenii moderni din această regiune au inclus în dietă o gamă mai dating site spy de animale, deşi datele arheologice şi morfologia funcţională a scheletelor umane din vestul şi estul Europei indică schimbări minore în exploatarea faunei pentru Paleoliticul mijlociu şi Paleoliticul superior vechi.

Introduction Insight into the dietary spectra of Late Pleistocene humans, at least in Europe, is primarily based on the associated faunal remains, especially for assemblages in which the primary accumulating agent appears to have been humans, organic preservation is good, and the excavation has been sufficient to permit detailed zooarcheological analysis. As a result, stable isotope analysis of human and faunal remains from the Late Pleistocene has been increasingly undertaken to provide further insight into Late Pleistocene human dietary spectra, especially for well-dated and in many cases, directly-dated human remains.

The Romanian human remains are, however, approached in time by the probably early Gravettian remains dating site spy Cro-Magnon and Paviland Henry-Gambier ; Jacobi and Higham The oldest of these remains, from the Peştera cu Oase Anina, Caraş-Severin at ~ 35 ka 14C BP, were water-transported surface finds within a karstic system that served primarily as a hibernation locale for large cave bear Ursus spelaeus with fossil and taphonomic evidence for some wolf Canis lupus activity Zilhão et al.

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There are no archeological remains or other evidence of Pleistocene human activity within the cave system, and the human fossils appear to be secondary intrusions into the system. The isotopic data Table 1 derive from the direct 14C dating of the Oase 1 mandible Trinkaus et al.

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Although there is evidence for an earlier Upper Paleolithic occupation of the adjacent Galeria Principală and especially Middle Paleolithic activity in both galleries, the site contains an abundance of U. Given the dating site spy of the cave system as a carnivore den, partial excavation recovery of faunal remains, and uncertainties regarding the association of the human remains with specific archeological assemblages, the only dietary data available for the Muierii humans derives from their stable isotope values, also obtained as part of dating site spy 14C dating process.

The cranium was found during phosphate mining, and its original position in the cave is unknown.

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Although Middle Paleolithic and Early Upper Paleolithic assemblages have been found in the cave Dobrescuthe cave dating site spy principally as a hibernation den for U.

The human fossil is therefore without stratigraphic, paleontological or archeological context cf. Through a number of lines of research, including empirical observations and controlled experiments on living organisms, it has been determined that the carbon and nitrogen dating site spy ratios in mammal bone collagen reflect the isotope ratios of dietary protein consumed over the last years of the life of that mammal Wild et al.

There is variation between sites, and ideally one should evaluate human δ15N values with respect to values from animals of known diet from the same levels of the same sites, something that is not always possible e. Such viteză dating denver 2021. However, dietarily significant differences in δ15N values, given within population variation and within dietary category variation, should mitigate intersite variation in values.

Carbon isotope ratios δ13C do not change, or change only slightly, between trophic levels, and they therefore reflect variation in plant carbon isotopes C3 versus C4 plants, with the former having lower or more negative δ13C valuesaccess to marine resources which have higher δ13C valuesand possibly climate van Klinken et al.

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In Late Pleistocene Europe, C4 plants were not present, so δ13C variation should dating site spy minor paleoecological differences and, to some extent, access to marine resources Richards ; Pettitt et al.

The dates and available chemistry have been published previously Trinkaus et al. Oase 1 dating site spy derives from the posteroinferior mandibular corpus.

The Muierii 1 sample is from the zygomatic bone, and the Muierii 2 one is from the squamous temporal. The Cioclovina 1 sample is from a detached portion of the inferior occipital bone.

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The relevant faunal remains from Oase, the wolf C. The moose Alces alces sample from Muierii an M1 is radiometrically the same age as the human remains, but the cave lion Panthera spelaea is older Soficaru et al.

The other fauna providing stable isotopes from Oase and Muierii, and all of the fauna dating site spy such data from Cioclovina, are cave bears Richards et al.

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Cave bears, as with modern brown bears Mowat and Heardappear to have potentially broad dietary spectra Richards et al. Comparative Late Pleistocene human stable isotope values derive from published analyses of European late archaic Neandertal and early modern Early and Middle Upper Paleolithic humans, many of which were generated in the context of direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the human remains Table 2.

In cases in which specimens have been redated e.

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Variation in values from repeated measures of the same specimens and from different sample preparation protocols tend to be modest, close to ± 1.

Most of the human and faunal data derive from fully mature bone.

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However, four of the specimens are immature the Middle Upper Paleolithic Kostenki 4 and Sunghir 2 and 3 late juveniles and the Neandertal Engis 2 infant and one the Jonzac 1 Neandertal is a premolar root.

In addition, among the comparative faunal remains, the Peştera Muieri A. It appears that nursing immature individuals should be considered to be a trophic level higher than adults due to lactation.

London Kills

As a result, bone or dentin formed postnatally and prior to weaning may have δ15N values a few per mil higher than that of the mother, depending on the duration of nursing and the degree to which the diet of the infant is supplemented with other foods Jenkins et al.

This should not pose a problem for the bone samples from the older juvenile Kostenki and Sunghir remains, nor for the Jonzac premolar given late juvenile root formation for human premolars Smith However, the Engis 2 δ15N value of Given the non-parametric nature of the stable isotope distributions, sample comparisons are made using Wilcoxon P-values.

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Significance levels are adjusted using a sequentially reductive multiple comparison corrections within sets of tests Proschan and Waclawiw This is due in part to the high values for Arene Candide 1 and La Rochette 1 and the low values for Feldhofer 1 and 2.

The Arene Candide 1 δ13C value, as well as the slightly lower Paviland 1 one, are apparently due to the consumption of significant amounts of maritime resources Richards ; Pettitt et al.