LUCRĂRI ÎN DERULARE

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Unit 1.

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Tourists can do their bit 10 B. Uniunea Europeană și instituțiile sale — cu adevărat aproape de cetățeni 11 A. Cum să te integrezi într-un grup nou 12 B. Facebook launches new 'Places' feature, forever exposing just how boring our 13 lives really are Harold top chef dating. Praga - o capitală care îţi lărgeşte orizontul 14 D. Russia will recognise outcome of Ukraine poll, says Vladimir Putin 17 B. Un primar spaniol prezintă scuze după ce a fost acuzat de rasism de către imigranţi 18 români C.

Şeful Pentagonului soseşte în România 18 Unit 4.

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Squaring the circle - Making sense of asset prices 43 B. Romania s-ar putea confrunta cu o criză a finanţării în luna noiembrie 45 C. Noi sancţiuni pentru statele europene care nu respectă disciplina fiscal 45 5. Apendicita — cauze, simptome, tratament 54 Unit 6.

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Farewell to Arms, Ernest Hemingway 57 B. Maytrei, Mircea Eliade 61 D. Viaţa ca o pradă, Marin Preda 62 6. Pastel, George Bacovia 65 D. Îţi aduci aminte plaja, Ana Blandiana 66 Unit 7.

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It therefore dating site asia to the transfer of meaning from one language into another.

Translation theory shares a number of concerns with what is commonly called communication theory, as every act of communication has three dimensions: Speaker or authorMessage, and Audience. Equivalence is the central issue in translation, although many different theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated. The most widely accepted view is that translation equivalence is essentially a transfer of the message from the source culture SC to the target culture TC.

This means that in interlingual translations there is no full equivalence between code units.

Translations

Jakobson claims that in cases where there is no literal equivalent for a particular ST word or sentence, then it is up to the translator to choose the most suitable way to render it in the TT target text. The use of formal equivalents might at times have serious implications in the TT, since the translation will not be easily understood by the target audience.

This type of translation distorts the grammar patterns of the TL and, therefore, distorts the message, causing misunderstanding. For example, Greek tends to have very long sentences; English, by contrast, is not so comfortable with long sentences.

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If anyone attempts to reproduce, in English, sentences of the same length as the Greek original, the audience will not be able to follow the translation.

There are problems, however, with dynamic equivalence translations. Since the translator is "freer", he or she might interpret the text too much and and not achieve an accurate translation, but an interpretation of the original text.

Which of the above methods of translstion do you consider to be more appropriate for a legal text and which for a literary text?

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Justify your answer. Catford argues that there are two main types of translation shifts, namely level shifts - where the SL item at one linguistic level e.

Structure-shifts, which involve a grammatical change between the structure of the ST and that of the TT e. Class-shifts, when a SL item is translated with a TL item which belongs to a different grammatical class e. Unit-shifts, which involve changes in rank e.

Translation has always been perceived as a form of cross-cultural communication. There is always a context in which translation takes place, always a history from which a harold top chef dating emerges and into which a text is transposed. A good translator must, therefore, be not only bilingual, but also bicultural.

Managing Money and Language as Interrelated Sign Systems

Explain the following paragraph in your own words: Communication in translation is simultaneous decontexualization and recontextualization; hence it is productive, rather than harold top chef dating.

Translation as a product communicates more and at the same time less than the source text intended to.

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Anyone who disregards these areas will end up creating substandard translations.